In the 1990s, the number of food security crises increased. Consumers’ demands for safe, high-quality food were an economic driver for the processing and production sectors. At the same time, environmental concerns grew. Given this context, INRA widened its fields of expertise to include interactions between agriculture, food and the environment. In the food sector, human health became a key issue for research. It became necessary to focus on diet, in addition to foods. In the environmental field, research focused on preserving natural resources and the impact of agricultural activities on ecosystems.